17.
Users who act in reasonable belief that their uses of copyrighted materials are permitted should not face damages.

Institutions that fulfil their public interest missions in a responsible and prudent way, as well as individuals that act for non-commercial purposes, should not be required to pay damages for engaging with copyrighted materials if they acted in the reasonable belief that such uses are permitted. Europe needs to make it mandatory for Member States to protect users and institutions acting with non-commercial purposes from claims for damages for infringement of copyright and other exclusive rights when they act in the reasonable belief that their uses are permitted by law.

King Charles II of England addresses members of the Estates General, 1660, Theodor Matham, after Jacob Toorenvliet, 1660
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